PhD student studies what motivates women to work out

October 7, 2019

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A Brock PhD student is studying the relationship between body image and attitudes toward physical activity in women. Lindsay Cline is a PhD student in Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, who is examining the effect that body image has on women’s motivation to engage in regular physical activity.“Despite the well-known benefits of physical activity, there is still extremely low participation rates among children, adolescents and adults,” says Cline. “These low levels of participation are even more pronounced in girls and young women.”Cline recently received a SSHRC Joseph-Armand Bombardier Canada Graduate Scholarship to support her PhD research that investigates the impact that positive appearance comments – those well-intentioned compliments – have on body-related thoughts, feelings and behaviours among young adult women.Although the comments are expressed in a positive manner, Cline says some women may not interpret them that way and it could actually negatively influence their body image.“My research will determine if there are certain characteristics that pre-dispose women to feel poorly about their body even from intended positive comments,” she says. “So, for example, determining whether a woman’s body weight or her appearance satisfaction affect how she responds to a comment made about her physical appearance.“After we identify some of these initial relationships, we plan to investigate how those experiences affect a woman’s motivation to engage in physical activity.”Cline, who is supervised by Prof. Kimberley Gammage, will collect data through questionnaires and interviews with young women about their body image and exercise activity.Her research makes a strong connection between healthy body image and healthy motivation for being active.“We need to ensure that women are engaging in exercise for healthy reasons and are not solely motivated based on feelings of shame, guilt or dissatisfaction with their physical appearance,” she says. “Internal motivation, where women are motivated for health and enjoyment reasons may prove to be the best strategy for their exercise adherence in the long run.”Watch a video in which Lindsay Cline talks about this research. read more


UN agencies shocked and saddened by vaccination deaths in Syria

October 2, 2019

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“How this could have physically happened is unclear. It is not the first time, but is, nonetheless, the biggest tragic incident of that kind,” Christian Lindmeier, spokesperson for the World Health Organization (WHO), told journalists in Geneva today. Mr. Lindmeier explained that manufacturers produced freeze dried vaccine powder and diluent. They were then shipped together to a hub, where the diluent had been kept in a refrigerator with a muscle relaxant – Atracurium – which was normally used for anaesthesia. On the day of immunization, however, it appears that the vaccines were shipped further to health facilities, where they were first mixed and then administered. The muscle relaxant, which had contaminated the vaccines, was working according to the weight. Therefore, all children who died were under the age of two, while the older ones survived with symptoms of diarrhoea and vomiting. The tragedy, as Mr. Lindmeier stated, all hinted to a very bad human error, which seemed to be twofold: during both packing and unpacking the vaccines. He went on to say that the Measles Task Force on the ground, the non-governmental organization running the campaign, had immediately suspended the vaccinations. A joint statement by the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and WHO issued Wednesday stressed that “establishing the precise cause of the children’s deaths is vital.” The statement further announced that WHO has deployed a team of three experts to assist those carrying out the investigation in Idlib and will report back immediately. Moreover, WHO is also providing advice and protocols for the investigation of adverse events following immunization. “The biggest challenge now is to continue the investigation,” said Mr. Lindmeier, underscoring that it is as vital to fully establish the cause as to continue the measles immunization campaign as soon as possible and rebuild the trust. “Measles is a particular threat to children who have been displaced from their homes and communities, and who are living in camps or other insanitary conditions,” said the joint statement. In 2006, more than 99 per cent of infants had been immunized against measles. read more